The growth strategy of any country depends on planning and development of the energy sector, made up by a variety of subsectors such as oil and gas and electricity. In Brazil, the state plays a central role in the sector as a planner of demand, a regulator, and, in many cases, an operator. In this sense, the mapping and understanding of state agents, as well as the government agenda and public policies for the sector, are essential so that companies may plan their actions, going beyond a simple understanding of technical regulations.
In the past years, the sector has been used as an instrument of industrial, monetary, and fiscal policy, a fact that reinforces its strategic nature for the country’s development. Economically, the oil and gas sector contributes 12% of the GDP. Besides serving as an important source of tax revenue, the sector provides significant opportunities for investments and serves as a source of scientific and technological development. The chain associated with the production of oil and gas is responsible for the generation of more than 400 thousand jobs and possesses an important role in R&D: nearly 50% of the formally employed researchers in Brazil work for Petrobras suppliers. The electricity sector, for its part, accounts for 2% of the GDP.
The principal challenges of the sector include the investment capacity of state companies (Eletrobras and Petrobras), the development of local industry for attending to national content policies, and the environmental viability of projects, a point that is increasingly contested. The economic sustainability of the sector in its current state is also a challenge. The new price levels of petroleum and the water crisis have put the current financial model and the attractiveness of new projects in check. At the same time, new opportunities emerge for the private sector, principally in the generation of alternative energy sources and in the search for a balance between efficiency and shared generation.
Prospectiva acts in the sector providing support in the understanding of the political and economic playing field and identifying potential public policy scenarios for its clients.